Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Angioedema: A Cross-Sectional Study From the National Inpatient Sample
Yiming LUO1, Xiaowen FAN1, Changchuan JIANG1, Alvaro RAMOS-RODRIGUEZ1, Yumeng WEN1, Jianglin ZHANG3, Feng HUANG4, Xizhou GUAN4, Jiehui XU2
1Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai St. Luke’s and Mount Sinai West Hospitals, New York, United States
2Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, United States
3Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, China Pla General Hospital, Beijing, China
4Department of Respiratory Medicine, China Pla General Hospital, Beijing, China
Keywords: Angioedema, cross-sectional study, epidemiology, National Inpatient Sample, systemic lupus erythematosus
Objectives: This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the odds of developing angioedema (AE) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) populations compared to non-SLE populations in hospital settings in the United States using a nationwide database.
Materials and methods: We used the data from the National Inpatient Sample for the years 2012 to 2014. We constructed two models for multivariate logistic regression analysis. Model 1 was designed to adjust demographic information, while model 2 included each factor in model 1 and additionally accounted for AE-related comorbidities.
Results: A total of 90,485 hospitalizations with an AE diagnosis were identified for the years 2012 to 2014, among which 1,505 hospitalizations had both SLE and AE. Compared to those without SLE, AE patients with SLE were younger and included more females. In AE hospitalizations, SLE was associated with higher odds of AE-related comorbidities including atopic disorder, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, eosinophilia, and infections. SLE was associated with higher odds of AE both as all inpatient diagnosis and as principal diagnosis (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.87-3.63, p<0.001, model 1 adjusted OR 2.54, 95% CI 2.26-2.86, p<0.001, model 2 adjusted OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.51-1.93, p<0.001).
Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that SLE is associated with higher odds of having AE, including severe AE as the principal reason for inpatient admission. SLE is possibly an independent risk factor for AE.