Obesity, Echocardiographic Changes and Framingham Risk Score in the Spectrum of Gout: A Cross-Sectional Study
Rada GANCHEVA1, Atanas KOUNDURDJIEV2, Mariana IVANOVA1, Todor KUNDURZHIEV3, Zlatimir KOLAROV1
1Department of Internal Medicine, Clinic of Rheumatology, Medical University, University Hospital St. Iv. Rilski, Sofia, Bulgaria
2Department of Internal Medicine, Clinic of Nephrology, Medical University, University Hospital St. Ivan Rilski, Sofia, Bulgaria
3Medical University, Faculty of Public Health, Sofia, Bulgaria
Keywords: Cardiovascular risk, gout stages, obesity
Objectives: This study aims to establish cardiovascular risk in obese and non-obese patients in stages of gout by using Framingham risk score (FRS) and transthoracic echocardiography.
Patients and methods: This single-center cross-sectional study encompassed 201 patients (160 males, 41 females; mean age 56.9±13 years; range 20 to 89 years) including 52 asymptomatic hyperuricemia, 86 gouty arthritis without tophi, and 63 gouty tophi patients. Body Mass Index (BMI) and FRS were calculated. Left atrium (LA), interventricular septum, posterior wall (PW) of the left ventricle, fractional shortening (FS), mitral annular systolic velocity (S’), mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E’) and transmitral to mitral annular early diastolic velocity ratio (E/E’) were measured. Data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Shapiro-Wilk test, t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, analysis of variance test and multiple linear regression models.
Results: There was no significant difference in FRS, FS, S’, E’ and E/E’ between obese and non-obese patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia, gouty arthritis without tophi or gouty tophi. Obese patients in the three disease gradations had larger LA (p=0.007, p=0.004, p=0.039) and thicker PW (p=0.002, p=0.037, p=0.007). Increased BMI independently predicted the thickening of the PW in asymptomatic hyperuricemia (R2=0.319), gouty arthritis without tophi (R2=0.093) and gouty tophi (R2=0.068).
Conclusion: Despite the lack of difference in FRS and functional systolic and diastolic parameters between obese and non-obese patients in the spectrum of gout, morphological heart changes were more pronounced in obese patients. In gouty tophi, it is possible that higher urate load together with chronic inflammation contribute for the alterations, as obesity worsens them.
The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.
The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.